Abstract
In this investigation central composite design (CCD) technique and mathematical model was developed by response surface methodology with three parameters, four levels and 20 runs, was used to develop the relationship between the FSW parameters (rotational speed, traverse speed, and tilt angle) and the responses (tensile strength, % Elongation, microhardness and residual stress) of dissimilar aluminum alloys AA5083 and AA6082 were established. The maximum tensile strength (214 MPa) was found at tool rotation speed 1300 rpm, traverse speed 45 mm/min with tilt angle 1^{0}. The maximum microhardness (86 HV) was found at tool rotation speed 1300 rpm, traverse speed 45 mm/min with tilt angle 1^{0}. The minimum tensile strength (161 MPa) was observed at tool rotation speed 1000 rpm, traverse speed 30 mm/min with tilt angle 2^{0}. In addition, a numerical model and empirical relationship was developed by design expert software between processing parameters (tool rotation speed, traverse speed, and tilt angle) and response surface parameters (tensile strength, percentage elongation and microhardness at nugget zone) and the optimized value of tensile strength, % elongation, microhardness, and residual stress were observed as 187.6 MPa, 19.93, 78.39 HV and 22.02 MPa respectively
Welding is a precise, reliable and cost effective technique used for joining of ferrous and nonferrous metals. It is widely used because of the high strength of the welded joint when compared to other joining methods like riveting, fastening, adhesive bonding. Welding is an indispensable joining technology (for both fabrication and repair works) used in manufacturing industries, such as automotive, aerospace, ship building, power generation, petroleum production and refining, construction and farm equipment, electronics, and medical devices. The friction stir welding (FSW) is an energy efficient, and ecofriendly solid state welding process invented in 1991 in England as shown in fig.1.
The effect of welding parameters on the
structure and properties of the nugget zone in AA7010 was investigated and it was
found that there is an optimum rotational speed, for a given traverse speed,
that gives the highest strength and ductility for the nugget zone. As the
traverse speed is increased, it is necessary to increase the rotational speed
to maintain this optimum condition. For a given traverse speed, there is a
significant variation in grain size and hardness from the top to the bottom of
the welds [1]. Martial flow in the weld zone is non symmetrically side
distributed about the weld line because the material flow during friction stir
welding is mainly controlled by both advancing and rotating speeds [2]. The
optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld when a rotating
threaded weld tool is inserted into a weld and literally stirs the edges of the
seam together. The lead wire embedded in the weld seam as a tracer. At the
welding temperature of aluminum, the lead becomes molten and is continuously
carried with the macroflow of the weld metal. A through thickness flow of
metal was revealed in the Xrat imaging of the lead tracer in addition to
revealing a cycle oscillation in the plasticized metal affected by the process
[3]. The tensile strength is directly proportional to traverse speed (TS).
Softening of the material was observed in the weld region and mostly evident in
the heataffected zone (HAZ) on the advancing side of the welds and corresponded
to the failure location in tensile tests. The reason for this phenomenon is due
to the kinetic and thermal asymmetry of the FSW process [4]. The New welding approach has been
introduced to improve the weldeing quality of TIG welded joint, the influence
of friction stir processing on TIG welded joint have been analyzed and they
observed mechanical properties and heat transfer of TIG+FSP welded joint. The
mechanical properties of TIG+FSP welded joint were observed better than TIG
welded joints. [511]. The tensile strength of the joint is lower than
that of the base metal. Decrease in hardness in the weld region and tunnel
defect were observed at the intersection of SZ and thermomechanically affected
zone (TMAZ) due to high rotational speed and traverse speed. Also, the welded
samples did not fail in bend test [12]. The effect of process parameters on the
joint performance was studied and found that 1600 rpm and 225 mm/min gave 2.8
mm penetration for 3 mm thick workpieces with 4 mm tool root diameter, and the
3 mm tip diameter [13]. The failure occurred at a much lower load during
tensile loading than during shear loading. Also, the authors presented
experimental data on load carrying capacities and fatigue of dissimilar
aluminiumalloy FSW welds [14]. The mechanical property variations in
AA3003H24 and 2124/Sic/25p–t4 alloy joints at rotational speed of 900 rpm and
traverse speed of 125 mm/min. It was found that the maximum tensile strength is
about 182 MPa. And, the hardness across the weld nugget varies and a minimum
value occurred on retreating side of the HAZ [15]. The rotational speed and
welding feed rate are the factors that have greater influence on hardening parameters
The numerical models response surface hardening models (RSHM) were compared
with those through least square hardening models (LSHM) and confronted to the
experimental results. Indeed, within the limit of a relative average deviation
of about 9.3%, between the experimental model and numerical models expressed in
terms of tensionelongation, the validity of these models is acceptable [16]. The
experiments with and without silicon carbide powder and analyzed the effect of
RS in the range of 6001200 rpm and TS in the range of 3672 mm/min. The
optimal values were found at 1200 rpm, 72 mm/min and axial load of 8 kN. Also,
it was found that maximum hardness occurred at the centre of the weld as
compared to other zones of weld joint and is attributed to intensive stirring
process [17]. The joining of dissimilar aluminumalloys (AA6262T6 and
AA7075T6) by varying the weld process parameters (tool rotational speed, weld
speed and axial force) with cylindrical toolpin profile have been analyzed and
they concluded that better mechanical properties (hardness and tensile
strength) are obtained with the FSW plate welded with 1200 rpm, 36 mm/min and
9kN axial force as compared with other range of values. The main idea of this
research was to study the joining of dissimilar materials AA5083 and AA6082
using the friction stir welding method. The objective of present work is to
optimize the process parameters such as tool rotational speed, traverse speed
and tilt angle for obtaining the greater or optimum value of mechanical
properties like ultimate tensile strength, microhardness and residual stress
of the friction stir welded joint of AA6082 and AA5083.
Table
1: Chemical composition of base
material
Al alloy 
Si 
Fe 
Cu 
Mn 
Mg 
Cr 
Zn 
Ti 
Al 
AA5083 
0.4 
0.3 
0.2 
0.6 
4.5 
0.1 
0.2 
0.1 
Bal 
AA6082 
1.2 
0.2 
0.1 
0.4 
0.6 
0.2 
0.3 
0.2 
Bal 
Run 
A:Tool Rotation Speed (rpm) 
B:Traverse speed (mm/min) 
C:Tilt Angle (º) 
1 
1150 
45 
2 
2 
1300 
30 
0 
3 
1150 
45 
0 
4 
1000 
30 
0 
5 
1150 
45 
1 
6 
1000 
60 
2 
7 
1300 
45 
1 
8 
1150 
45 
1 
9 
1150 
45 
1 
10 
1300 
60 
0 
11 
1150 
45 
1 
12 
1000 
60 
0 
13 
1150 
30 
1 
14 
1150 
45 
1 
15 
1000 
45 
1 
16 
1300 
60 
2 
17 
1150 
60 
1 
18 
1000 
30 
2 
19 
1150 
45 
1 
20 
1300 
30 
2 
3.
Results and
discussion
3.1 Tensile strength
At same rotational speed, the tensile
strength decreased with increasing traverse speed. However, the tensile
strength and mean hardness of FSW joint are closer to the base metal values at
1300 rpm and 45 mm/min with tilt angle 1° and therefore considered to be
optimum process parameters. Based on the observed trends, it can be concluded
that there should be a tradeoff between tensile strength and hardness while
selecting the optimum process parameters. When the rotational speed increased,
the heat input per unit length of the welded joint also increased which caused
a fine uniform grain refinement was obtained to improve the tensile strength. When
the tool rotational speed increases from 1300 rpm may produce an excessive
release of stirred welded material on the top surfaces of the base plate,
obtained micro void into the stirred zone.
The tensile strength of welded joints was
varied between 161214 MPa. The minimum tensile strength (161 MPa) was observed
at tool rotation 1000 rpm, traverse speed 30 mm/min with tilt angle 2º, whereas
maximum tensile strength was observed at at tool rotation 1300 rpm, traverse
speed 45 mm/min with tilt angle 1º as shown in fig. 3.
The increase in temperature as well as
coarsening of grains and cooling rate at more than desired temperature may
reduce the tensile strength of the welded joint of at high traverse speed. Some
defects were observed when the material flow around the advancing side (A.S) of
the weldment, because there is no force promoting its movement back into the
volume stirred by the moving tool [18]. All the fracture occurred at the
interface or near the nugget zone (NZ) and thermo mechanically affected zone
(TMAZ) on the advancing side (AS). The reason of fracture near to the nugget
zone and thermo mechanically affect zone may be resulting in many coarse grains
brittle structure near to the NZ and TMAZ [19]. It may be noted that the all
joints are fractured at the advancing side, this shows that the tensile
strength of these weldment are not same on both side to the weld center, it
means the strength of advancing side is weaker than the retreating side (RS).
Run 
A:Tool Rotation Speed (rpm) 
B:Traverse speed (mm/min) 
C:Tilt Angle ( º ) 
Tensile Strength (MPa) 
Strain (%) 
Hardness at Nugget (HV) 
Residual Stress at Nugget (MPa) 
1 
1150 
45 
2 
163 
13 
66 
38 
2 
1300 
30 
0 
194 
24 
83 
24 
3 
1150 
45 
0 
182 
20 
75 
25 
4 
1000 
30 
0 
175 
15 
70 
33 
5 
1150 
45 
1 
195 
21 
81 
14 
6 
1000 
60 
2 
154 
14 
61 
44 
7 
1300 
45 
1 
214 
24 
86 
12 
8 
1150 
45 
1 
192 
22 
80 
15 
9 
1150 
45 
1 
190 
22 
81 
18 
10 
1300 
60 
0 
177 
16 
73 
29 
11 
1150 
45 
1 
189 
21 
80 
20 
12 
1000 
60 
0 
167 
16 
66 
36 
13 
1150 
30 
1 
181 
20 
75 
26 
14 
1150 
45 
1 
187 
21 
78 
21 
15 
1000 
45 
1 
188 
22 
79 
23 
16 
1300 
60 
2 
174 
14 
68 
35 
17 
1150 
60 
1 
178 
18 
73 
27 
18 
1000 
30 
2 
161 
15 
63 
40 
19 
1150 
45 
1 
188 
23 
82 
28 
20 
1300 
30 
2 
187 
22 
76 
22 
3.2 Microhardness
at Nugget zone
Fig. 5 shows the variation between
microhardness and processing parameters of the friction stir welded joint of
AA5083 and AA6082. Although the investigation of the microhardness across the
weldment of AA5083 and AA6082 has been reported earlier [20]. The stirred zone
(SZ) of friction stir welding have the highest hardness in the welded zone due
to the high temperature which results in the dissolution of the precipitation
phase in that zone. This increase in the hardness at the stirred zone was
observed in friction stir welding of other precipitation hardened alloys [21].
3.3 Residual stress at Nugget zone
3.4 Evaluating the
adequacy of the developed model
The empirical relationship for the output
responses i.e. tensile strength, microhardness and residual stress has been
developed and the adequacy was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM)
technique. The FSW experiments were designed with the help of design expert
software with 20 experiments. To identify the process parameters that are
statistically significant, analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was conducted. The
purpose of ANOVA test is to determine the significance of process parameters
which affect the mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints. The
Ftest (Fisher’s test) may also be used to determine which process parameter
has a significant effect on the mechanical properties. The results of ANOVA
test show that the opt process parameters are highly significant factor
affecting the mechanical properties of friction stir welded joint in order to
tool rotational speed, traverse speed and tilt angle. The developed models were
tested using ANOVA method with the help of design expert software. The ANOVA
results for tensile strength, percentage elongation and hardness at nugget
zones are shown in table 46. The all models give the highly significant
fisher’s F value which shows that the model adequately representing the
relationship between process parameters and response. The fisher’s F value of
developed model for tensile strength is 26.67 which shows that the model is
significant and there is only 0.01% chance that a model Fisher’s value could
occur due to noise. The lack of fit F value of 2.28 shows that the lack of fit
is not significant. For a good model lack of fit should be not significant. The
residual error value (150.93) should be the sum of lack of fit (104.96) and
pure error (46). By this column of fit summary recommended quadratic model is
statically significant for analyzing the tensile stress of welded joint of
AA5083 and AA6082. The fisher’s F value of developed model for percentage
elongation is 12.51 which shows that the model is significant and there is only
0.02% chance that a model Fisher’s value could occur due to noise. The lack of
fit F value of 5.18 shows that the lack of fit is not significant. For a good
model lack of fit should be not significant. The residual error value (20.6)
should be the sum of lack of fit (17.27) and pure error (3.33). By this column
of fit summary recommended quadratic model is statically significant for
analyzing the percentage elongation of welded joint of AA5083 and AA6082. The
fisher’s F value of developed model for microhardness at nugget zone is 36.13
which shows that the model is significant and there is only 0.01% chance that a
model Fisher’s value could occur due to noise. The lack of fit F value of 2.09
shows that the lack of fit is not significant. For a good model lack of fit
should be not significant. The residual error value (28.8) should be the sum of
lack of fit (19.47) and pure error (9.33). By this column of fit summary
recommended quadratic model is statically significant for analyzing the
microhardness at nugget zone of welded joint of AA5083 and AA6082. The
fisher’s F value of developed model for residual stress at nugget zone is 8.34
which shows that the model is significant and there is only 0.13% chance that a
model Fisher’s value could occur due to noise. The lack of fit F value of
0.8298 shows that the lack of fit is not significant. For a good model lack of
fit should be not significant. By this column of fit summary recommended
quadratic model is statically significant for analyzing the residual stress at
nugget zone of welded joint of AA5083 and AA6082.
3.5
Developing a
mathematical model
The empirical relationship was developed
for the response variable i.e. ultimate tensile strength, percentage
elongation, and microhardness and residual stress at nugget zone under the
input processing parameters i.e. tool rotational speed (A), traverse speed (B)
and tilt angle (c) using analysis of variance technique with the help of design
expert software. The mathematical empirical relationship for tensile strength,
percentage elongation and microhardness at nugget zone are as follow.
Tensile strength = 696.7 – 1.12A + 4.67B + 8.56C – 0.00083AB + 0.0175 AC + 0.04167 BC + 0.00052A^{2} – .0452 B^{2} – 18.18C^{2}
^{ }Strain (%) = 60.68  0.15A + 1.71B + 10.36C – 0.00088AB – 0.0017AC – 0.0167BC – 0.0089B^{2} – 4.5C^{2}
^{ }Microhardness = 174.09 –0.296A + 2.56B + 12.2C – 0.00067AB + 0.033BC– 00016A^{2} – 0.022B^{2} – 8.5C^{2}
Residual stress = 55.32 +0.28A –2.895B –11.08C + 0.00061AB – 0.00916AC + 0.075BC– 0.000145A^{2}+0.0254B^{2}+10.72C^{2}
Table
4: analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for tensile strength
Tensile Strength 

Source 
Sum of Squares 
df 
Mean Square 
Fvalue 
pvalue 

Model 
3622.27 
9 
402.47 
26.67 
< 0.0001 
significant 
ATool Rotation Speed 
1000 
1 
1000 
66.25 
< 0.0001 
significant 
BTraverse speed 
230.4 
1 
230.4 
15.26 
0.0029 
significant 
CTilt Angle 
336.4 
1 
336.4 
22.29 
0.0008 
significant 
AB 
28.13 
1 
28.13 
1.86 
0.2022 
significant 
AC 
55.13 
1 
55.13 
3.65 
0.0851 
significant 
BC 
3.13 
1 
3.13 
0.207 
0.6588 
significant 
A² 
384.09 
1 
384.09 
25.45 
0.0005 
significant 
B² 
285.09 
1 
285.09 
18.89 
0.0015 
significant 
C² 
909.09 
1 
909.09 
60.23 
< 0.0001 
significant 
Residual 
150.93 
10 
15.09 



Lack of Fit 
104.93 
5 
20.99 
2.28 
0.1932 
not significant 
Pure Error 
46 
5 
9.2 



Cor Total 
3773.2 
19 




Table 5: analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for percentage
elongation
% Elongation 

Source 
Sum of Squares 
df 
Mean Square 
Fvalue 
pvalue 

Model 
231.95 
9 
25.77 
12.51 
0.0002 
significant 
ATool Rotation Speed 
32.4 
1 
32.4 
15.73 
0.0027 
significant 
BTraverse speed 
32.4 
1 
32.4 
15.73 
0.0027 
significant 
CTilt Angle 
16.9 
1 
16.9 
8.2 
0.0168 
significant 
AB 
32 
1 
32 
15.53 
0.0028 
significant 
AC 
0.5 
1 
0.5 
0.2427 
0.6329 
significant 
BC 
0.5 
1 
0.5 
0.2427 
0.6329 
significant 
A² 
11 
1 
11 
5.34 
0.0434 
significant 
B² 
11 
1 
11 
5.34 
0.0434 
significant 
C² 
55.69 
1 
55.69 
27.03 
0.0004 
significant 
Residual 
20.6 
10 
2.06 



Lack of Fit 
17.27 
5 
3.45 
5.18 
0.0476 
Not significant 
Pure Error 
3.33 
5 
0.6667 



Cor Total 
252.55 
19 




MicroHardness 

Source 
Sum of Squares 
df 
Mean Square 
Fvalue 
pvalue 

Model 
936.4 
9 
104.04 
36.13 
< 0.0001 
significant 
ATool Rotation Speed 
220.9 
1 
220.9 
76.7 
< 0.0001 
significant 
BTraverse speed 
67.6 
1 
67.6 
23.47 
0.0007 
significant 
CTilt Angle 
108.9 
1 
108.9 
37.81 
0.0001 
significant 
AB 
18 
1 
18 
6.25 
0.0314 
significant 
AC 
0 
1 
0 
0 
1 
significant 
BC 
2 
1 
2 
0.6944 
0.4241 
significant 
A² 
33.69 
1 
33.69 
11.7 
0.0065 
significant 
B² 
68.75 
1 
68.75 
23.87 
0.0006 
significant 
C² 
198.69 
1 
198.69 
68.99 
< 0.0001 
significant 
Residual 
28.8 
10 
2.88 

Lack of Fit 
19.47 
5 
3.89 
2.09 
0.2195 
not significant 
Pure Error 
9.33 
5 
1.87 

Cor Total 
965.2 
19 
3.6 Influence of
process parameters on tensile strength, microhardness and residual stress
When the feed rate or traverses speed increases, the tensile strength and hardness also increases up to a certain value. Large heat was found in the welded region at lower welding traverse speed. As the traverse speed increases, the effect of thermal cycle on the welded joint properties is weakened leading to an improvement in tensile strength and hardness of the welded joint.
When the tool rotational speed is compared
with the tilt angle and traverse speed then the rotational speed is more
sensitive to change or increase the tensile strength and microhardness of the
friction stir welded joint of AA5083 and AA6082 because the heat generation is
mainly depended on tool rotational speed, higher tool rotational speed produces
higher heat generation [23]. The cube function graph of multi response
optimization as shown in fig. 1011. This methodology is used to optimize for
more than one objective function. The desirable value is 1 for optimized value
of the input processing parameters and responses. The optimized value of
tensile strength, percentage elongation, microhardness at nugget zone and
residual stress at nugget zone are 187.6 MPa, 19.93, 78.39 HV and 22.02 MPa
respectively, whereas the optimized value of tool rotational speed, feed rate
and tilt angle are 1227.7 rpm, 53.20 mm/min and 0.3741 respectively as shown in
fig. 12.
The present work was design to optimize
the processing parameters of friction stir welded joints of dissimilar aluminum
alloy of AA5083 and AA6082 and the following conclusions have been made.
·
Friction
stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys AA5083 and AA6082 aluminum alloys of
6 mm plates have been welded.
·
The
experiments were designed with the help of CCD of RSM and the FSW parameters
such as tool rotational speed, traverse speed and tilt angle were considered.
· The maximum tensile strength (214 MPa) was found at tool rotation speed 1300 rpm, traverse speed 45 mm/min with tilt angle 1^{0}
· The maximum microhardness (86 HV) was found at tool rotation speed 1300 rpm, traverse speed 45 mm/min with tilt angle 1^{0}
·
The
minimum tensile strength (161 MPa) was observed at tool rotation speed 1000
rpm, traverse speed 30 mm/min with tilt angle 2^{0}.
·
In
addition, a numerical model and empirical relationship was developed by design
expert software between processing parameters (tool rotation speed, traverse
speed, and tilt angle) and response surface parameters (tensile strength,
percentage elongation and microhardness at nugget zone) and the optimized
value of tensile strength, % elongation, microhardness, and residual stress
were observed as 187.6 MPa, 19.93, 78.39 HV and 22.02 MPa respectively.
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Cite this article as: Muzamil Farooq,
Amit Gupta, Vikas Nandal, Optimization of process parameters of friction stir
welded joint of dissimilar aluminum alloy AA5083 and AA6082, International
journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 5, issue 1
(2020), 1019. https://doi.org/10.36037/IJREI.2021.5102. 
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